Bracy ~ Bracey ~ Brecey
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"One school (of thought) leans toward being consistent in the spelling of a surname regardless of how it is spelled in the records where you find the individual.
The other school of thought suggests that you should record the surnames as you find them in the records.
The way these people get around this is to have a list of variant spellings they need to check when researching, but when they record the name in their database or on a given family group sheet or pedigree chart, they adhere to a standard spelling.
The other school of thought stems from trying to be as accurate as possible in the recording of the information.
By recording the spelling as it is found, they can see how the surname may have changed over a period of time, especially useful when working on immigrants.
The downside to this is what spelling do you take? In some research you may find a person's surname spelled three or four different ways in three or four different records. My rule of thumb here is to go with the spelling as I find it in the record closest to the birth of the individual."
What Constitutes Genealogical Proof
A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for European Paternal Lineages
(R-M269 just means your direct male line came from europe it doesn't mean that any of those males where not american indian you could be full blooded with a europe Haplogroup it only takes about 3 generations to be closed to full blooded.) (Bureau of Indian Affairs | Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood / Alaska Native Blood Instructions )
The relative contributions to modern European populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Near East have been intensely debated. Haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) is the commonest European Y-chromosomal lineage, increasing in frequency from east to west, and carried by 110 million European men.
Distribution of R-M269 in Europe increases in frequency from east to west.
It peaks at the national level in
Wales at a rate of 92%, at
82% in Ireland,
70% in Scotland,
68% in Spain about
60% in Portugal,
53% in Italy,
50% in Germany,
50% in the Netherlands,
45% in Eastern England,
43% in Denmark, and
42% in Iceland.
R-M269 reaches levels as high as 95% in parts of Ireland.
This marker is present in China and India at frequencies of less than one percent.
(According to the study Suslova et al. 2015: "The Bashkirs appear close to Mongoloids in allele and haplotype distribution. However, Bashkirs cannot be labelled either as typical Mongoloids or as Caucasoids. Thus, Bashkirs possess some alleles and haplotypes frequent in Mongoloids, which supports the Turkic impact on Bashkir ethnogenesis, but also possess the AH 8.1 haplotype, which could evidence an ancient Caucasoid population that took part in their ethnic formation... Bashkirs showed no features of populations with a substantial Finno-Ugric component, for example Chuvashes or Russian Saami. This disputes the commonly held belief of a Finno-Ugric origin for Bashkirs...)
Suslova, T. A.; Burmistrova, A. L.; Chernova, M. S.; Khromova, E. B.; Lupar, E. I.; Timofeeva, S. V.; Devald, I. V.; Vavilov, M. N.; Darke, C. (1 October 2012). "HLA gene and haplotype frequencies in Russians, Bashkirs and Tatars, living in the Chelyabinsk Region (Russian South Urals)". International Journal of Immunogenetics. 39(5): 394–408.
R-M269 appears to have been present since antiquity.
R-M269 has been found, for instance, at a rate of ~44% among remains dating from the 11th to 13th centuries at Punta Azul, in the Canary Islands.
These remains have been linked to the Bimbache (or Bimape), a subgroup of the Guanche.
In living males, it peaks in parts of North Africa, especially Algeria, at a rate of 10%.
In Sub-Saharan Africa, R-M269 appears to peak in Namibia, at a rate of 8% among Herero males.
Apart from undiverged, basal R-M269*, there are (as of 2017) two primary branches of R-M269:
R-L23 (R1b1a1a2a; L23/PF6534/S141) and
R-PF7558 (R1b1a1a2b; PF7558/PF7562.)
R-L23* and its subclades are by far the most common forms of R-M269. R-PF7558 is now rare, but has been reported anecdotally at low levels throughout Western Eurasia (Europe and the Middle East)
R-L23 (Z2105/Z2103; a.k.a. R1b1a1a2a) has been reported among the peoples of the Idel-Ural (by Trofimova et al. 2015): 21 out of 58 (36.2%) of Burzyansky District Bashkirs, 11 out of 52 (21.2%) of Udmurts, 4 out of 50 (8%) of Komi, 4 out of 59 (6.8%) of Mordvins, 2 out of 53 (3.8%) of Besermyan and 1 out of 43 (2.3%) of Chuvash were R1b-L23.
Subclades within the paragroup R-M269(xL23) – that is, R-M269* and/or R-PF7558 – appear to be found at their highest frequency in the central Balkans, especially Kosovo with 7.9%, Macedonia 5.1% and Serbia 4.4%. Unlike most other areas with significant percentages of R-L23, Kosovo, Poland and the Bashkirs of south-east Bashkortostan are notable in having a high percentage of R-L23(xM412) also known as R1b1a1a2a(xR1b1a1a2a1) – at rates of 11.4% (Kosovo), 2.4% (Poland) and 2.4% south-east Bashkortostan. (This Bashkir population is also notable for its high level of R-M73 (R1b1a1a1), at 23.4%.) Five individuals out of 110 tested in the Ararat Valley of Armenia belonged to R-M269(xL23) and 36 to R-L23*, with none belonging to known subclades of L23.
In 2009, DNA extracted from the femur bones of 6 skeletons in an early-medieval burial place in Ergolding (Bavaria, Germany) dated to around AD 670 yielded the following results: 4 were found to be haplogroup R1b with the closest matches in modern populations of Germany, Ireland and the USA while 2 were in Haplogroup G2a.